Under Peter the Great, Russia became a great European nation. Peter acquired territory in the Baltic from Sweden; and through several wars with Turkey in the south, he secured access to the Black Sea. He created a strong navy, reorganized his army according to Western standards, secularized schools, administered greater control over the Church. Peter established the city of St. Petersburg and moved the capital there from its former location in Moscow, it became known as Russia's "window to Europe." Sadly, his eldest son, Alexis, was convicted of high treason by his father and secretly executed in 1718.